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Clearwater Group

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Books by Clearwater Principal



 Clearwater Group Principal Geologist James A. Jacobs served as project manager, designer, co-editor and co-author of the following technical books.  Books and articles reflect a focus on exposure pathway analysis, sensitive receptors, contaminants in the environment, and the assessment and remediation of volatile toxins.  The research focuses on the past work and writing over two decades and relates to evaluating potentially toxic vapors migrating through sewer/plumbing systems into indoor air.  Many of the volatile contaminants (hydrocarbons and solvents) in the research project are the same ones that were described in the books and articles (petroleum hydrocarbons: crude oil, gasoline, methane, BTEX, MTBE, and chlorinated solvents: PCE, TCE, and DCA). 

Hydraulic Fracking


 Environmental Considerations Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations: Adjusting to the Shale Revolution in a Green World (Wiley) by James A. Jacobs and Stephen M. Testa, 576 pages (April 23,. 2019)

The authors include an overview of the historical development of hydraulic fracturing and the technology currently employed. The book also explores the risk, prevention, and mitigation factors that are associated with fracturing. The authors also include legal cases, regulatory issues, and data on the cost of recovery. The volume presents audit checklists for gathering critical information and documentation to support the reliability of the current environmental conditions related to fracking operations and the impact fracking can have on a community. 

Oil Spills & Gas Leaks


Oil Spills and Gas Leaks: Environmental Response, Prevention and Cost Recovery (McGraw-Hill) by Stephen M. Testa and James A. Jacobs; 578 pages,  (Mar 10, 2014)

Oil Spills and Gas Leaks highlights the complex nature of assessment, exposure pathway analysis, sensitive receptor evaluation related to oil spills and gas leaks.  The sampling methods and remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons are described, as well as the oil spill and gas leak behavior, and environmental impact mitigation. The book discusses engineering techniques; long-term biological and environmental effects; litigation and cost recovery, and legislation in overlapping jurisdictions.

Acid Mine Drainage


Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage, and Acid Sulfate Soils: Causes, Assessment, Prediction, Prevention, and Remediation (Wiley) by James A. Jacobs, Jay H. Lehr and Stephen M. Testa; 520 pages,  (Apr 28, 2014)  ​

Featuring contributions from a variety of authors, this book explores the biogeochemistry of acid mine drainage, rock drainage, and acid sulfate soils. It describes how to predict, prevent, and remediate the environmental impact of acid drainage and the oxidation of sulfides, offering sampling and analytical methods.  Jacobs co-authored 18 of the 36 chapters.


Readers will discover new approaches for recovering valuable resources from acid mine drainage, including bioleaching.

Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage, and Acid Sulfate Soils reviews the most current findings in the field, offering new insights into the underlying causes as well as new tools to minimize the harm of acid drainage:

  • Part I: Causes of Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage and Sulfate Soils focuses on the biogeochemistry of acid drainage in different environments.
  • Part II: Assessment of Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage and Sulfate Soils covers stream characterization, aquatic and biological sampling, evaluation of aquatic resources, and some unusual aspects of sulfide oxidation.
  • Part III: Prediction and Prevention of Acid Drainage discusses acid-base accounting, kinetic testing, block modeling, petrology, and mineralogy studies. It also explains relevant policy and regulations.
  • Part IV: Remediation of Acid Drainage, Rock Drainage and Sulfate Soils examines both passive and active cleanup methods to remediate acid drainage.

Chromium [Cr(VI)]


Chromium(VI) Handbook (CRC Press) by Jacques Guertin, James A. Jacobs and Cynthia P. Avakian; 800 pages,  (Dec 28, 2004)

The broad scope of this book fills the need for a comprehensive resource on chromium(VI), also called “hexavalent chromium.” 

​The book compiles the information on "hexavalent chromium" into one comprehensive source. Features chapters on chromium sources, geology and geochemistry, toxicity, treatment, remediation, legal issues, and recommendations.

Editorial Reviews: Brought to the public's attention in the film Erin Brokovich, hexavalent chromium is a larger problem than it was once thought to be. The Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition estimates that the 315 million computers expected to become obsolete by the year 2004 would contain among other hazardous wastes, 1.2 million pounds of hexavalent chromium. The high stakes involved in hexavalent chromium-related litigation has increased the demand for authoritative information comprehensively presented in a logical, concise format.

Put together by a team of scientists, engineers, regulators, and lawyers, Chromium(VI) Handbook consolidates the latest literature on this topic.The broad scope of this book fills the need for a comprehensive resource on hexavalent chromium, improving understanding of this contaminant at a time when the extent and degree of the problem is still being assessed. It addresses naturally occurring and anthropogenic sources, geology and geochemistry, toxicity, treatment, regulatory issues and legal cases, and recommendations. Providing a detailed understanding of the geochemistry controlling the types and distribution of chromium and chromium ions in soils and groundwater, it will aid managers of remedial investigations in scientifically based site assessments. The well-organized and succinct presentation makes it a definitive resource for industrial hygiene/occupational health professionals. Comprehensive regarding teh topic of hexavalent chromium, the Chromium(VI) Handbook provides essential information for investigating and remediating the incidence of chromium contamination.



 MTBE: Effects on Soil and Groundwater Resources (CRC Press) by James A. Jacobs, Jacques Guertin, and Christy Herron; 264 pages,  (Sep 28, 2001)

At this point, the book is mostly an historic document of the state of knowledge in the environmental industry regarding MTBE at around 2000.  This critical period in problem assessment occurred when regulators, tank owners, consultants and environmental activists first realized this was an "emerging contaminant."  The book highlights investigation and remediation approaches started as regulators were becoming more aware of the MTBE.  The book highlights a compound used as a result of an unintended consequence of adding a highly soluble compound to gasoline while fuel tanks in the United States were mostly single-walled steel tanks.  These underground fuel tanks proved to be inferior containers to hold highly soluble liquids like MTBE.

As one of the first books written about MTBE, the volume was written by a team of scientists, engineers, and toxicologists.  MTBE: Effects on Soil and Ground-Water Resources provides a historic view of MTBE from 2001.  The book examines MTBE as a technical solution designed to reduce air emission from vehicles  and focuses on the health effects of MTBE caused by drinking contaminated surface or ground water.  The book includes coverage of dermal sorption by bathing or washing in MTBE contaminated water.  The book addresses the areas of mapping, selected concepts for remediation of soil and ground water, and environmental risk assessment.  Information from the book includes early coverage of the assessment and potential remediation strategies of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE).  In addition to a history and overview of fuel oxygenates and MTBE, the book contains information on the physical and chemical properties of MTBE, the toxicity and health effects of the compound and breakdown products, taste and odor thresholds, transport and fate in the environment, detection and treatment in soil and groundwater, and environmental policy of MTBE in 2001.

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Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking)